Subject: Certifications

There are two kinds of PRAXIS tests: Praxis Core and Praxis II.

The Praxis Core Test is a new suite of three examinations given to candidates entering teacher preparation programs. It replaced the Praxis I Pre-Professional Skills test (PPST) in fall 2013.

That Praxis I series is a collection of core exams for teachers. Exams in this series include many different topics such as Agriculture, Sociology, Health, Physical Education, Special Education, Mathematics, and many others. Each test varies in length and topic, but most of the tests last around two to three hours, and typicall have around 150 questions.

Praxis II Tests

Like other examinations in the Praxis series, Praxis II examinations are used for teacher assessment and licensure decisions by many states. There are more than 120 Praxis II examinations. The many Praxis II exams are divided into three primary categories: Subject Assessments, Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) Tests, and Teaching Foundations Tests.

Praxis II examinations are typically a part of the state licensure process for new teachers, but requirements and passing scores vary greatly from state to state. Some states, such as Florida, appear to make no use whatsoever of Praxis examinations;some, such as Pennsylvania or Ohio, accept Praxis tests for certain purposes or subjects, but may not prefer or require them;and some states, such as Connecticut, require candidates to pass Praxis examinations to obtain teaching licensure.Candidates are encouraged to carefully review their own state's licensure requirements when determining which, if any, Praxis II examinations to take.

ETS provides historical score statistics for most of its examinations. For example, for the popular Elementary Education: Content Knowledge examination, out of 38,163 recent test takers, the median scaled score was 166 out of 200, versus a typical passing score of about 140-150.

The Praxis II exam series contains a number of exams that are designed to test teachers on the subject material they are testing for. If it's a test for teachers, there may also be questions on teaching practices. The testing time varies test to test, and ranges from around an hour to four hours. The tests are usually a mix of multiple choice questions, constructed-response, and essay questions.

List of current Praxis II subject tests:

Art: Content and Analysis
Art: Content Knowledge
American Sign Language
Biology and General Science
Biology: Content Essays
Biology: Content Knowledge
Braille Proficiency
Business Education: Content Knowledge
Chemistry: Short Word Essays
Chemistry: Content Knowledge
Chemistry, Physics and General Science
Chinese (Mandarin): World Language
Citizenship Education: Content Knowledge
Cooperative Education
Driver Education
Early Childhood: Content Essays
Early Childhood Education
Earth and Space Sciences: Content Knowledge
Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Education of Young Children
Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision
Elementary Education: Content Knowledge
Elementary Education: Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
Elementary Education: Instructional Practice and Applications
Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects
English Language Arts: Content and Analysis
English Language Arts: Content Knowledge
English Language, Literature and Composition: Content and Analysis
English Language, Literature and Composition: Content Knowledge
English Language, Literature and Composition: Pedagogy
English to Speakers of Other Languages
Environmental Education
Family and Consumer Sciences
French: World Language
Fundamental Subjects: Content Knowledge
General Science: Content Essays
General Science: Content Knowledge
German: World Language
Gifted Education
Government/Political Science
Health and Physical Education: Content Knowledge
Health Education
Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education
Library Media Specialist
Life Science: Pedagogy
Marketing Education
Mathematics: Content Knowledge
Mathematics: Pedagogy
Middle School: Content Knowledge
Middle School English Language Arts
Middle School Mathematics
Middle School: Multiple Subjects
Middle School Science
Middle School Social Studies
Music: Analysis
Music: Concepts and Processes
Music: Content and Instruction
Music: Content Knowledge
Physical Education: Content and Design
Physical Education: Content Knowledge
Physical Education: Movement Forms - Analysis and Design
Physical Science: Content Knowledge
Physical Science: Pedagogy
Physics: Content Essays
Physics: Content Knowledge
Pre-Kindergarten Education
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades K-6
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 5-9
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 7-12
Professional School Counselor
Reading Across the Curriculum: Elementary
Reading Specialist
Safety/Driver Education
School Guidance and Counseling
School Psychologist
School Social Worker: Content Knowledge
Social Sciences: Content Knowledge
Social Studies: Content and Interpretation
Social Studies: Content Knowledge
Spanish: World Language
Special Education: Core Knowledge and Applications
Special Education: Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications
Special Education: Core Knowledge and Severe to Profound Applications
Special Education: Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Special Education: Early Childhood
Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood
Special Education: Teaching Speech to Students with Language Impairments
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Behavioral Disorders/Emotional Disturbances
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Learning Disabilities
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Mental Retardation
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Visual Impairments
Speech Communication: Content Knowledge
Speech-Language Pathology
Teaching Foundations: English
Teaching Foundations: Mathematics
Teaching Foundations: Multiple Subjects
Teaching Foundations: Science
Teaching Reading
Teaching Reading: Elementary Education
Technology Education
Vocational General Knowledge
World and U.S. History: Content Knowledge
World Languages Pedagogy