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Reading Comprehension Test
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Reading Comprehension Test |

A recent book about Florence Nightingale tries to undermine her idealized reputation and downplay her contributions to the field of military medicine. The author asserts that Nightingale did not become supervisor of all female nurses until late in the Crimean war, and contributions from nurses during that war were, at best, marginal. In contrast, a new volume of Nightingale's correspondence casts her influence in a much more positive light. The editors cite her crucial role in the creation of the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army, as well as her founding of a nurses' training hospital in London. The passage is primarily concerned with
Innovations in the quality of health care in post-Crimean War England.
Evaluating opposing portrayals of Florence Nightingale's historical import.
Contrasting approaches to composing a historical biography.
Underscoring Florence Nightingale's importance in military nursing.

Over-the-counter medications are just as useful in combating head-cold symptoms as the medications that require a prescription. The cough syrup that I bought at the grocery store stopped my cough just as well as the expectorant I got from my pharmacist. How are the two sentences related?
The second sentence provides an example of the conclusion asserted in the first.
The second sentence shows there is no evidence to support the first.
They restate the same information.
They give a cause and its effect.,

Public speaking is very different from everyday conversation.First of all, speeches are much more structured than a typical informal discussion.How are these sentences related?
Sentence two compares two kinds of speeches.
Sentence two offers support for the statement made in the first sentence.
Sentence two contradicts the statement made in the first sentence.
Sentence two shows an exception to the first sentence

Read the sentences, and then choose the best answer to the question or the best completion of the statement. Anxious to ensure that America would depart from European traditions regarding religion and royalty, the early U.S. could be described as a place that focused more on work than on the entertainment offered by spectacle and ceremony in the Old World. However, national celebrations such as the lighting of the White House Christmas Tree and the ceremonies used to swear in new federal officials five the American people some experiences that are based upon national tradition. What does the second sentence do?
It cancels the meaning of the first sentence
It provides an example of the first sentence.
It adds more detail to the first sentence.
It offers an exception to the information given in the first sentence.

Most artists think of their art as an attempt to establish a dialogue with the observer. The artist's message cannot exist without someone else to absorb it and, perhaps, offer an alternative view. It is this relationship between separate interpretations of an artist's creation that generates conversations and myriad appreciations of artistic endeavor. Because dialogues require equal effort from both artist and observer, the critic can use his or her body of knowledge to facilitate the exchange of ideas. The author of the passage mentions that the role of art critics is to
Interpret art in ways a common observer cannot.
Save an observer the trouble of viewing a piece of art if it is subpar.
Challenge artists to do their very best work.
Help an artist trade ideas with those who view the art.

French physicist Charles Fabry found ozone gas in the atmosphere in 1913. At room temperature, ozone is a colorless gas; it condenses to a dark blue liquid at -170° F. At temperatures above the boiling point of water, 212° F, it decomposes. Ozone is all around us. After a thunderstorm, or around electrical equipment, ozone is often detected as a sharp odor. Ozone is used as a strong oxidizing agent, a bleaching agent, and to sterilize drinking water. This gas is also highly reactive. For example, rubber insulation around a car's spark plug wires will need to be replaced eventually, due to the small amounts of ozone produced when electricity flows from the engine to the plug. These passages imply that:
Ozone is a natural part of the Earth's atmosphere.
Ozone has no practical uses.
High ozone levels in the atmosphere will cause large numbers of people to buy new car batteries.
Ozone is the result of pollution.

Because it was a holiday weekend, Marcus believed that the roads would be less crowded than usual. That morning, Marcus chose to drive to the city rather than take public transportation. What does the second sentence do?
It provides an application of the theory provided in the first sentence.
It presents a solution to the problem mentioned in the first sentence.
It contradicts the evidence given in the first sentence.
It repeats the same idea as stated in the first sentence.

Until recently, astronomers believed that the particles in a meteor stream became more dispersed at the edges but remained dense at its center. A new experiment, however, used computer-tracking software to extrapolate the density of hypothetical particles over a period of 5,000 years. And researchers were surprised to learn that, although the edges of the computer-generated stream were indeed dispersed, it was hollow at its center. If this model is accurate, it may explain why Earth often experiences two periods of peak activity during a meteor shower instead of just one. From the passage, we can infer that
The average life span of a meteor shower is 5,000 years.
According to older theories, meteor shower activity always rises to one specific peak and then declines gradually.
Meteor showers are more random than was originally thought.
Computer-generated modeling is not yet as reliable as it needs to be.

Public health officials are becoming concerned about chlorine, a chemical that is added to many municipal water supplies to reduce bacterial growth. New evidence shows that the rate of a first-trimester miscarriage is increased significantly when a pregnant woman drinks five or more glasses of chlorinated water per day. Lead, which has been shown to cause brain damage in small children, is another main contaminant in urban water systems. Rising fears about these and other problems—such as toxic bacteria, cysts, and algae—have caused an increase in the number of alternate methods of water filtration that are available to the general public. The passage is chiefly concerned with
Urging people to find alternate sources of hydration
Enumerating the many potential dangers that pregnant women encounter
Creating fear over problems that cannot be solved
Offering background information regarding heightened interest in safe water

The Earth's past climate-including temperature and elements in the atmosphere-has recently been studied by analyzing ice samples from Greenland and Antarctica. The air bubbles in the ice have shown that, over the past 160,000 years, there has been a close correlation between temperature changes and level of natural greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. One recent analysis from Greenland showed that at the end of the last glacial period (when the great ice sheets began to retreat to their present position), temperatures in southern Greenland rose from 5 to 7 degrees in about 100 years. Air bubbles are not the only method of determining characteristics of the Earth.s ancient climate history. Analysis of dust layers from ancient volcanic activity is another such method; as is the study of ice cores, which interpret past solar activity that may have affected our climate. This passage states that:
Solar energy is the wave of the future.
Temperatures in Greenland have been unusually stable over the past 100 years.
The Greenhouse effect is destroying the planet.s atmosphere.
There is more than one kind of information that scientists can use to determine the characteristics of the Earth.s early climate.

With the advent of the Internet, it is now widely believed that the most successful corporate managers are those who deviate from classical management models. Whereas before it was important to determine and weigh all options, a process often delayed by bureaucracy and an inability to find consensus, now most successful managers say they rely on "intuition." This is not, as many people believe, advocating uninformed impulses when making decisions, but rather a very specific impulse sharpened by years of experience and practice. In many cases, this particular style of thinking can expose flaws in tried-and-true methods that have not evolved with the times and are therefore inadequate on their own. It can be inferred from the passage that successful managers
Cannot justify their instinctual decisions to those with less experience
Are no better off now than before the Internet became so commonplace
Use their practical experience to develop a specific feel that can vary from case to case
Adhere to strict regimens of thought when formulating solutions

The ancient Chinese perspective regarding dragons is one that Americans might not expect. In America, dragons are typically portrayed as menacing and villainous monsters that crush villages, trample castles, and spew fiery breath at any hero who dares challenge them. In ancient China, however, these mythical beasts were wise, strong, compassionate, and protected people's families and land. Dragons were seen everywhere in ancient China—carved into temples, book covers, thrones, musical instruments, and weapons. In fact, the Chinese believed that their ruling class actually descended from dragons and continue to seek advice from them. The author's main purpose is to
Reconcile contrary opinions of dragons.
Illustrate how two disparate cultures can still share beliefs.
Identify a myth that overwhelmed an ancient culture.
Emphasize the degree to which the ancient Chinese revered dragons.

As immigrants left Ellis Island, some headed for New York, but others bought tickets to board the Central Railroad of New Jersey (CRRNJ) and traveled by train to their new homes. As the population of the United States increased throughout the 1800s, the need for railway transportation in and out of New Jersey became more obvious. In 1864, the CRRNJ built its first railroad terminal where people could purchase tickets and board trains. As immigration increased, a second terminal was constructed in 1889. This terminal, located near what is now the northern part of Liberty State Park, still stands today as an important part of American history. The main purpose of this passage is to
Discuss the increase of rail travel during the immigration boom.
State that the increase in train travel could not keep pace with the rate of immigration.
Debunk the myth that all immigrants stayed in New York City.
Provide a comprehensive history of the CRRNJ.

In the early 20th century, it was theorized that ice ages resulted from variations in the Earth's orbit. No one could attempt to prove this theory, however, because there was not enough trustworthy data about when ice ages occurred and how long they lasted. Recently, however, a group of scientists discovered how to determine this chronology by using two oxygen isotopes, 16 and 18, that are found in ocean residue. Almost all oxygen in ocean water is oxygen 16, but the forming of ice sheets results in less water evaporating from the ocean, and an increasing ratio of oxygen 18 molecules. The greater the ratio of these heavier molecules found in ocean sediments, the more land ice was present. The author of this passage is primarily interested in
Attempting to resolve a heated controversy
Initiating debate on a theory that many believe to be flawed
Decrying how research can often be undermined by the lack of sufficient data
Presenting a conjecture and a new way to test its validity

Consumer spending has dropped more than 30% over the past 12 months. Unemployment has risen by 2.2% since this time last year. What does the second sentence do?
It states a potential cause.
It makes a comparison.
It offers a solution to a problem.
It offers irrelevant information.

Ireland is known for its ancient castles that date back several centuries, to the time when most of the land was ruled by Vikings. Tourists can walk through their magnificent gardens and explore the majestic castles, many of which still have furniture and other antique items belonging to former residents. The Malahide Castle, located on the seaside of Dublin, Ireland's capital city, was home to members of the same family for more than 800 years. Why does the writer mention Malahide Castle in the above paragraph?
To exemplify the age and historical significance of Dublin's ancient castles.
To encourage tourists to assess the value of its antique furniture.
To identify one of the most important Viking structures in Dublin.
To describe the importance of maintaining ancient architecture for future generations to appreciate it.

Voters are poised to reject the referendum for spending municipal taxes to build a new baseball stadium. If the new stadium is not built, the local team's owner has threatened to move his franchise. What does the second sentence do?
It offers a solution to a problem.
It contradicts the first sentence.
It states a potential consequence.
It provides analysis from a different perspective.

Specialists in early brain development believe that some video games can enhance a child's cognition and problem-solving ability. Children under three who learn to solve simple jigsaw puzzles show a marked propensity to read sooner than those who do not. What does the second sentence do?
It offers nothing relevant to support the first sentence.
It contradicts the opinion given in the first sentence.
It reinforces the first sentence by offering similar evidence.
It provides an alternate interpretation of the first sentence.

In 2011, the legislature of State B introduced an unpopular bill that effectively revoked the collective bargaining rights of public-sector labor unions. The governor asserted that this change was necessary in order to balance the state's budget. What does the second sentence do?
It provides an explanation for a contentious topic.
It refutes the claim cited in the first sentence.
It restates the information given in the first sentence.
It states an unexpected consequence.


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