General Knowledge

75 Important Scientists You Should Know About

Scientist - Country  - Field and/or Specialty - Discovery, Invention 

Agassiz, Louis Switzerland/U.S. paleontology ichthyology, ice age, glacier theory
Ampère, André France physics electrodynamics, wave theory of heat
Ängström, Anders Sweden physics measurement of spectral wavelength
Audubon, John James Haiti/U.S. biology ornithology
Becquerel, Henri France physics radioactivity in uranium
Bell, Alexander Graham Scotland/U.S. engineering telephone
Benz, Karl Germany engineering motor car
Bohr, Niels Denmark physics quantum mechanics
Brahe, Tycho Denmark astronomy astronomical measurements
Celsius, Anders Sweden physics temperature scale
Colt, Samuel U.S. engineering revolver
Copernicus, Nicolaus Poland astronomy heliocentric model of solar system
Crick, Francis England genetics model of DNA
Curie, Marie Poland/ chemistry radioactivity in polonium  France and radium
Daimler, Gottlieb Germany engineering automobile, motorcycle
Darwin, Charles England biology natural selection, theory of evolution
Diesel, Rudolf France engineering diesel engine
Eastman, George U.S. engineering photographic film
Edison, Thomas U.S. engineering phonograph, electric light bulb
Einstein, Albert Germany/ physics relativity, photoelectric effect U.S. (quantum mechanics)
Fahrenheit, Daniel Germany/ physics alcohol and mercury Holland thermometers
Faraday, Michael England chemistry dynamo, second law of electrolysis
Fermi, Enrico Italy/U.S. physics nuclear chain reaction
Fleming, Alexander Scotland medicine penicillin
Fokker, Anthony Holland/U.S. engineering aircraft
Fossey, Dian U.S. biology gorilla behavior
Fulton, Robert U.S. engineering steamboat
Galen Greece medicine anatomy, medical experimentation
Galileo Galilei Italy astronomy motion of bodies, telescope, craters on moon, sunspots
Gatling, Richard U.S. engineering machine gun
Goddard, Robert U.S. engineering liquid-fueled rocket
Goodall, Jane England biology tool use in chimpanzees
Halley, Edmond England astronomy Halley’s comet, diving bell
Harvey, William England medicine blood circulation
Hertz, Heinrich Germany physics electromagnetic waves, oscillator
Hippocrates Greece medicine observation, diagnosis, prognosis
Howe, Elias U.S. engineering lock-stitch sewing machine
Jenner, Edward England medicine smallpox vaccine
Joule, James England physics heat produced by motion, Joule’s law
Kepler, Johannes Austria astronomy Kepler’s laws of planetary motion
Lamarck, Jean France biology evolutionary theory of acquired characteristics, classification of invertebrates
Land, Edwin U.S. engineering instant photography
Lavoisier, Antoine France chemistry chemical nomenclature, conservation of mass
Linnaeus, Carolus Sweden biology botany, taxonomy
Lister, Joseph England medicine antiseptic surgery
Marconi, Guglielmo Italy engineering radio
Maxwell, James Scotland physics electromagnetic field, kinetic theory of gases
McCormick, Cyrus U.S. engineering mechanical reaper
Mendel, Gregor Austria genetics dominant and recessive traits
Mitchell, Maria U.S. astronomy comet C/1847 T1
Morse, Samuel U.S. engineering telegraph, Morse code
Newcomen, Thomas England engineering steam engine
Newton, Isaac England physics Newton’s laws of motion, calculus, light spectrum, experimental methodology
Nobel, Alfred Sweden engineering dynamite
Oersted, Hans Denmark physics electromagnetism
Otis, Elisha U.S. engineering elevator brake, passenger elevator
Pasteur, Louis France chemistry pasteurization, germ theory
Pauling, Linus U.S. chemistry protein structure, chemical bonding
Planck, Max Germany physics quantum theory
Priestly, Joseph England chemistry oxygen
Ptolemy Rome astronomy geocentric theory of the solar system, star catalog
Röentgen, Wilhelm Germany physics X-rays
Rutherford, Ernest New Zealand/ physics alpha, beta, gamma rays; half-life; England neutrons
Sabin, Albert Poland/U.S. microbiology oral polio vaccine
Salk, Jonas U.S. microbiology polio vaccine
Sikorsky, Igor Ukraine/U.S. engineering helicopter
Singer, Isaac U.S. engineering mass production of sewing machines
Szilard, Leo Hungary/U.S. physics nuclear reaction, atomic bomb
Teller, Edward Hungary/U.S. physics hydrogen bomb
Tesla, Nikola Serbia/U.S. engineering system of generating alternating current
Tull, Jethro England engineering seed drill
van Leeuwenhoek Anton, Holland microbiology microscope 
Volta, Alessandro Italy physics battery
Watson, James U.S. biochemistry model of DNA
Watt, James Scotland engineering steam engine
Whitney, Eli U.S. engineering cotton gin
Wright, Wilbur and Orville U.S. engineering airplane

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