Government Capital: New Delhi
Area: 3287263 km2 (Seventh place in the World - 2.42% of the World. 1 - 20 - 849 km2 excluding which is occupied by China and Pakistan).
Boundaries (1) Land : China - Nepal and Bhutan in the North - Myanmar and Bangladesh in the East - separated by hilly ranges. Pakistan and Afghanistan in the North-West. (2)
Boundaries Sea: Arabian Sea in the West - Indian ocean in the South and Bay of Bengal in the East.
Latitudinal Extent 8o 4' 28" N to 37o 17' 53" N . Roughly 29 Latitudes.
Longitudinal Extent 68o 7' 53"E to 97o 24' 47" E E. Roughly 29 Longitudes.
Standard Meridian 82Â½ E. Longitudes (Passing through Allahabad. Time 5½ hrs ahead of Greenwich mean time).
Physical Divisions 1. Himalayas Mts. in the North. 2. Great Plains in the North. 3. Plateau region in the South. 4. Coastal plain. 5. Thar desert.
Distance of extreme South from equator: 876 km.
East to West distance: 2933 km.
North to South distance: 3214 km.
Sea boundary including Islands: 7516.6 km.
Land boundary: 15200 km.
Islands: Bay of Bengal 204 - Arabian Sea 43.
States through which the Tropic of cancer passes: Gujarat - Rajasthan - Chhattisgarh - Madhya Pradesh - Jharkhand - West Bengal - Tripura - Mizoram.
Mountainous Ranges: Godwin Austin K2 (8611 m.) (Highest peak in India) - Beside this, Kanchanjunga - Nanga Parwat - Nanda Devi - Kamet - Makalu - Anna- purna - Mansali - Badrinath - Kedar Nath - Trisul - etc.
Important Lakes: Wular - Dal - Chilka - Sambhar Didwana - Husain Sagar - Naini-ko-leru - Pulcit - Vembanand - Lunar - Nakki.
Total Population: 1210569573 (2011) (Final)
Percentage of World Population: 17.5%.
Density of Population: 382 persons km2 as per 2011 census.
Population Growth Rate: 17.7%.
Sex Ratio: 943 :1000.
Literacy: 73.0% (Male Literacy 80.9% - Female Literacy 64.6%).
Forested Area: (2015 Report) 7 - 01 - 673 km2 (21.34% of the total geographical area) - excluding Tree area of 2.82% (92572 km2).
Soils: Alluvial soil - Black soil - Red and Yellow soils - Laterite soil - Desert and Marshy soil.
Means of Irrigation: Canal (22%) - Wells (16%) - Tubewells (46%) - Tanks (3%) and other (9%).
1. Wet agriculture (without irrigation where average rainfall is more than 200 cm.
2. Humid agriculture (Black and alluvial soil area - where rainfall is 110 to 200 cm).
3. Jhuming cultivation (North - East India and Western Ghats).
4. Terrace cultivation (Hill of arming) At the slopes of Himalayas.
No. of Districts: 640 (2011)
Major Ports: 13
No. of Class I Cities: 468 (2011)
Total No. of Urban Areas: 7 935 (2011)
State with maximum no. of cities: Uttar Pradesh (704)
State with highest Urban Population: Maharashtra 5 - 08 - 18 - 259 (2011)
State with Highest Percentage of Urban Population: Goa 62.17% (2011)
State with Percentage of Lowest Urban Population: Himachal Pradesh : 10.04 (2011)
Smallest State as per area: Goa (3702 km2)
District with Highest Population: Thane - Maharashtra (1.11 crore)
District with Lowest Population: Dibang Valley (Arunachal Pradesh - 7948)
District with Highest Literacy - Mizoram (98.76%)
District with Lowest Lieracy - Koraput - Odisha (49.87%)
District with Highest Sex Ratio - Mahe - Puducherry (1176: 1000)
District with Lowest Sex Ratio - Jhajjar - Haryana (774:1000)
City with Maximum Population - Mumbai - Maharashtra (1.25 crore)
City with Lowest Population Nagda - M.P. (100036)
City with Highest Literacy - Aizwal - Mizoram (98.80%)
City with Lowest Literacy - Rampur - U.P. (60.74%)
City with Highest Sex Ratio - Kozhikode - Kerala (1093:1000)
City with Lowest Sex Ratio - Vapi - Gujarat (734:1000)
State with highest density of population (2011 ) - Bihar (1106) - persons km2 (as per 2011 census)
State with lowest density of population (2011 ) - Arunachal Pradesh (17 persons km2)
Union Territory with minimum area: Lakshadweep 32 km2
Union Territory with maximum area: Andaman Nicobar Islands (8249 km2)
No. of National Highways: 313
Longest National Highway: National Highway 07 - (2369 km2) (Varanasi to Kanya Kumari)
Biggest (largest) Railway Zone: Northern Railway
Tiger Projects: 49
National Parks: 166
Wild Life Sanctuaries: 515
Biggest State according to area: Rajasthan (342239 km²)
State with maximum population: Uttar Pradesh 1998 12 341 persons (As per 2011 census)
State with minimum population: Sikkim (610577 persons)
Highest Waterfall: Kunchikal waterfall at river Varahi in Karnataka
Largest Sea Beach: Marina Sea Beach (Chennai)
State with Longest Coast Line: Gujarat (1074 km)
Battle ground at highest point: Siachin area
Biggest (Sweet water): Lake Wular lake (Jammu- Kashmir)
Biggest River bridge: Mahatma Gandhi Bridge (Patna) Ganga-Patna 5575 metre
Longest tunnel: Chenani-Nashri (Patnitop) (Jammu- Kashmir)
Biggest Cave Temple: Kailash temple (Ellora-Maharashtra)
Highest National award: Bharat Ratna
Highest Gallantry award: Param-Veer- Chakra
State with maximum Literacy: (2011 ) Kerala (first 100% literate state in the country).
State with minimum Literacy rate: Bihar (61.8% as per 2011 census).
Biggest artificial lake: Govind Sagar (Bhakra- Nangal)
Biggest natural harbour: Mumbai
Biggest Stadium: Yuba- Bharti salt lake-Kolkata
Biggest Indoor Stadium: Indira Gandhi Stadium (New Delhi).
Longest Canal: Indira Gandhi Canal (Rajasthan)
Highest Gate: Buland- Darwaja (Fatehpur-Sikri - Agra)
Biggest Delta: Sunder- ban (West Bengal)
Biggest Animal Fair : Sonpur (Bihar)
National Symbol: Lion Capital of Asoka
State emblem is an adoptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka - which was adopted on 26th January - 1950 by Government of India. It is preserved in Sarnath Museum.
National Calendar Based on Saka era
National Aquatic Animal: River Dolphin
National Flag: Tri-colour
National Emblem: Sarnath Lion (Capital Ashok)
National Anthem: Jana - Gana - Mana - Adhinayak Jaya He
On 27th December - 1911 - the National Anthem was first sung at the Kolkata session of Indian National Congress. 'Bharat Bhagya-Vidhata' title was first published in a magazine named Tatvabodhini. This song was translated from English entitled 'the morning song of India in 1919 by Rabindra Nath Tagore.' The Indian Constituent Assembly adopted this song as a National Anthem on 24th Jan. - 1950.
National Song: Vande-Mataram
National Song Vande-Mataram was composed by Bankimchandra Chatterji. There are five stanzas in this song but its first stanza is sung only as a national song. Time taken to sing this song is 1 minute and five seconds. This song is in Tal Kahewa Rag. This National Song was first sung in session of Indian National Congress at Kolkata in 1896.
National Currency (Symbol): ₹
National River: Ganga
National Flower: Lotus
National Fruit: Mango
National Tree: Banyan tree
National Animal: Tiger (Panthera-tigris)
National Bird: Peacock (Pavo cristatus)
National Political Parties:
1. Congress 1885 A. O. Hume - Symbol: Hand
2. Communist Party: 1920 by M. N. Roy - Symbol: Ear of corn with Reaping hook
3. B.J.P. 1980 - By Shyama Prasad Mukherjee - Symbol: Lotus
4. C.P.M.: 1964 by E. M. S. Danga - Symbol: Reaping hook - Hammer - Star
5. B.S.P. 1980 by Kashiram - Symbol: Elephant
6. N.C.P. 1999 by Sarad Pawar - Symbol: Watch
7. Trinmool Congress: Founded in 1998 by Mamta Banerji - Symbol (Jora Ghas Phul)
Biggest Zoo: Geological garden (Kolkata - West Bengal)
Place with maximum Rainfall: Mawsynram (Meghalaya)
Place with minimum Rainfall: Leh
Longest road: G. T. Road
Biggest Sun Temple: Konark Sun temple - Puri - Odisha
Highest Peak: Godwin Austin (K2)
Biggest Church: St. Cathedral Church (Goa)
Biggest Cinema Hall: Thangam (Tamil Nadu)
Most Beautiful Picture hall: Rajmandir (Jaipur)
State adjacent to maximum States boundary: Uttar Pradesh
Longest rail-route: Dibrugarh to Kanyakumari (4 - 286 km)
Longest distance covered by a train: Vivek Express between Dibrugarh to Kanyakumari.
Deepest Coalmine: Raniganj (West Bengal)
First Coalmine: Raniganj (West Bengal)
Highest Lake: Devtal lake (Garhwal Himalaya)
Biggest printing newspaper factory: Nepanagar (Madhya Pradesh)
Longest Glacier: Siachin
Biggest desert: Thar (Rajasthan)
Longest Railway Platform: Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh) 1,366.33 m (4,483 ft)
States Situated on International Boundary (Indian States at Boundary): Countries - States
1. Pakistan 1. Gujarat - 2. Rajasthan - 3. Punjab - 4. Jammu- Kashmir
2. Afghanistan Jammu-Kashmir
3. China 1. Jammu-Kashmir - 2. Himachal Pradesh - 3. Uttarakhand - 4. Sikkim - 5. Arunachal Pradesh
4. Nepal 1. Uttar Pradesh - 2. Uttarakhand - 3. Bihar - 4. West Bengal - 5. Sikkim
5. Bhutan 1. Sikkim - 2. West Bengal - 3. Assam - 4. Arunachal Pradesh
6. Bangladesh 1. West Bengal - 2. Assam - 3. Meghalaya - 4. Tripura - 5. Mizoram
7. Myanmar 1. Arunachal Pradesh - 2. Nagaland - 3. Manipur - 4. Mizoram
Biggest Museum: Indian Museum - Kolkata
Busiest Bridge: Howrah Bridge
Maximum Rainfall disparity State: Kerala
Biggest residential building: President House - Delhi
In all there are 29 (Telengana has been declared 29th state) States and 7 Union Territories in India.
In India - the Tropic of cancer passes through 8 states (Gujarat - Rajasthan - Madhya Pradesh - Chhattisgarh - Jharkhand - West Bengal - Tripura and Mizoram).
In all - there are 247 islands in India - in which 204 islands are in Bay of Bengal and 43 islands are in Arabian Sea.
In Kerala (State) with 1084 and Puducherry (Union Territory) with 1037 (Sex Ratio) the No. of females per 1000 males is the highest in India (2011).
Among Union Territories of India maximum population density (11320) is found in central capital region Delhi - and lowest density in Andaman-Nicobar (46).
From the point of view of area - Rajasthan is the biggest State (3 4223.9 km2) while Goa is the smallest State (3702 km2).
From the point of view of area - biggest Union Territory is Andaman-Nicobar (8249 km2) - while Smallest Union Territory is Lakshadweep (32 km2).
In India Narmada and Tapti are the two rivers which flow towards the west while rest rivers of country flow towards the east.